JWT connection refused

I have configured grafana with jwt authentication but now whenever I start the service there is a connection refused error in the browser (and nothing loads). I’ve checked the grafana log but there are no errors.

Hi @fencer019,

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  • What happened?
  • What did you expect to happen?
  • Can you copy/paste the configuration(s) that you are having problems with?
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Sorry for the missing info. I’m running Grafana v9.1.0 (82e32447b4) on Debian 4.9.130-2

I have configured the [auth.jwt] section in grafana.ini but as soon as this is done, Grafana will start but I get “Connection Refused” in the browser and there will be no errors in the Grafana log. The full configuration is:

##################### Grafana Configuration Example #####################
#
# Everything has defaults so you only need to uncomment things you want to
# change

# possible values : production, development
app_mode = production

# instance name, defaults to HOSTNAME environment variable value or hostname if HOSTNAME var is empty
;instance_name = ${HOSTNAME}

#################################### Paths ####################################
[paths]
# Path to where grafana can store temp files, sessions, and the sqlite3 db (if that is used)
;data = /var/lib/grafana

# Temporary files in `data` directory older than given duration will be removed
;temp_data_lifetime = 24h

# Directory where grafana can store logs
logs = /var/log/grafana

# Directory where grafana will automatically scan and look for plugins
;plugins = /var/lib/grafana/plugins

# folder that contains provisioning config files that grafana will apply on startup and while running.
;provisioning = conf/provisioning

#################################### Server ####################################
[server]
# Protocol (http, https, socket)
protocol = https

# The ip address to bind to, empty will bind to all interfaces
;http_addr = somedomain.fake

# The http port  to use
http_port = 3000

# The public facing domain name used to access grafana from a browser
domain = somedomain.fake

# Redirect to correct domain if host header does not match domain
# Prevents DNS rebinding attacks
enforce_domain = true

# The full public facing url you use in browser, used for redirects and emails
# If you use reverse proxy and sub path specify full url (with sub path)
root_url = https://somedomain.fake:3000

# Serve Grafana from subpath specified in `root_url` setting. By default it is set to `false` for compatibility reasons.
;serve_from_sub_path = true

# Log web requests
;router_logging = false

# the path relative working path
;static_root_path = public

# enable gzip
enable_gzip = true

# https certs & key file
cert_file = /etc/grafana/fullchain.pem
cert_key = /etc/grafana/privkey.pem

# Unix socket path
;socket =

#################################### Database ####################################
[database]
# You can configure the database connection by specifying type, host, name, user and password
# as separate properties or as on string using the url properties.

# Either "mysql", "postgres" or "sqlite3", it's your choice
;type = sqlite3
;host = 127.0.0.1:3306
;name = grafana
;user = root
# If the password contains # or ; you have to wrap it with triple quotes. Ex """#password;"""
;password =

# Use either URL or the previous fields to configure the database
# Example: mysql://user:secret@host:port/database
;url =

# For "postgres" only, either "disable", "require" or "verify-full"
;ssl_mode = disable

# For "sqlite3" only, path relative to data_path setting
;path = grafana.db

# Max idle conn setting default is 2
;max_idle_conn = 2

# Max conn setting default is 0 (mean not set)
;max_open_conn =

# Connection Max Lifetime default is 14400 (means 14400 seconds or 4 hours)
;conn_max_lifetime = 14400

# Set to true to log the sql calls and execution times.
;log_queries =

# For "sqlite3" only. cache mode setting used for connecting to the database. (private, shared)
;cache_mode = private

#################################### Cache server #############################
[remote_cache]
# Either "redis", "memcached" or "database" default is "database"
;type = database

# cache connectionstring options
# database: will use Grafana primary database.
# redis: config like redis server e.g. `addr=127.0.0.1:6379,pool_size=100,db=0`. Only addr is required.
# memcache: 127.0.0.1:11211
;connstr =

#################################### Data proxy ###########################
[dataproxy]

# This enables data proxy logging, default is false
;logging = false

# How long the data proxy should wait before timing out default is 30 (seconds)
;timeout = 30

# If enabled and user is not anonymous, data proxy will add X-Grafana-User header with username into the request, default is false.
;send_user_header = false

#################################### Analytics ####################################
[analytics]
# Server reporting, sends usage counters to stats.grafana.org every 24 hours.
# No ip addresses are being tracked, only simple counters to track
# running instances, dashboard and error counts. It is very helpful to us.
# Change this option to false to disable reporting.
reporting_enabled = false

# Set to false to disable all checks to https://grafana.net
# for new vesions (grafana itself and plugins), check is used
# in some UI views to notify that grafana or plugin update exists
# This option does not cause any auto updates, nor send any information
# only a GET request to http://grafana.com to get latest versions
;check_for_updates = true

# Google Analytics universal tracking code, only enabled if you specify an id here
google_analytics_ua_id = UA-150432087-1

# Google Tag Manager ID, only enabled if you specify an id here
;google_tag_manager_id =

#################################### Security ####################################
[security]
# default admin user, created on startup
;admin_user = admin

# default admin password, can be changed before first start of grafana,  or in profile settings
;admin_password = admin

# used for signing
;secret_key = SW2YcwTIb9zpOOhoPsMm

# disable gravatar profile images
;disable_gravatar = false

# data source proxy whitelist (ip_or_domain:port separated by spaces)
;data_source_proxy_whitelist =

# disable protection against brute force login attempts
;disable_brute_force_login_protection = false

# set to true if you host Grafana behind HTTPS. default is false.
cookie_secure = true

# set cookie SameSite attribute. defaults to `lax`. can be set to "lax", "strict" and "none"
;cookie_samesite = lax

# set to true if you want to allow browsers to render Grafana in a <frame>, <iframe>, <embed> or <object>. default is false.
;allow_embedding = true

# Set to true if you want to enable http strict transport security (HSTS) response header.
# This is only sent when HTTPS is enabled in this configuration.
# HSTS tells browsers that the site should only be accessed using HTTPS.
# The default version will change to true in the next minor release, 6.3.
strict_transport_security = true

# Sets how long a browser should cache HSTS. Only applied if strict_transport_security is enabled.
;strict_transport_security_max_age_seconds = 86400

# Set to true if to enable HSTS preloading option. Only applied if strict_transport_security is enabled.
;strict_transport_security_preload = false

# Set to true if to enable the HSTS includeSubDomains option. Only applied if strict_transport_security is enabled.
;strict_transport_security_subdomains = false

# Set to true to enable the X-Content-Type-Options response header.
# The X-Content-Type-Options response HTTP header is a marker used by the server to indicate that the MIME types advertised
# in the Content-Type headers should not be changed and be followed. The default will change to true in the next minor release, 6.3.
;x_content_type_options = false

# Set to true to enable the X-XSS-Protection header, which tells browsers to stop pages from loading
# when they detect reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. The default will change to true in the next minor release, 6.3.
x_xss_protection = true


#################################### Snapshots ###########################
[snapshots]
# snapshot sharing options
;external_enabled = true
;external_snapshot_url = https://snapshots-origin.raintank.io
;external_snapshot_name = Publish to snapshot.raintank.io

# Set to true to enable this Grafana instance act as an external snapshot server and allow unauthenticated requests for
# creating and deleting snapshots.
;public_mode = false

# remove expired snapshot
;snapshot_remove_expired = true

#################################### Dashboards History ##################
[dashboards]
# Number dashboard versions to keep (per dashboard). Default: 20, Minimum: 1
;versions_to_keep = 20

#################################### Users ###############################
[users]
# disable user signup / registration
allow_sign_up = false

# Allow non admin users to create organizations
allow_org_create = false

# Set to true to automatically assign new users to the default organization (id 1)
;auto_assign_org = true

# Default role new users will be automatically assigned (if disabled above is set to true)
;auto_assign_org_role = Viewer

# Background text for the user field on the login page
;login_hint = email or username
;password_hint = password

# Default UI theme ("dark" or "light")
;default_theme = dark

# External user management, these options affect the organization users view
;external_manage_link_url =
;external_manage_link_name =
;external_manage_info =

# Viewers can edit/inspect dashboard settings in the browser. But not save the dashboard.
;viewers_can_edit = false

# Editors can administrate dashboard, folders and teams they create
;editors_can_admin = false

[auth]
# Login cookie name
;disable_login_form = true


# The lifetime (days) an authenticated user can be inactive before being required to login at next visit. Default is 7 days,
;login_maximum_inactive_lifetime_days = 7

# The maximum lifetime (days) an authenticated user can be logged in since login time before being required to login. Default is 30 days.
;login_maximum_lifetime_days = 30

# How often should auth tokens be rotated for authenticated users when being active. The default is each 10 minutes.
;token_rotation_interval_minutes = 10

# Set to true to disable (hide) the login form, useful if you use OAuth, defaults to false
;disable_login_form = false

# Set to true to disable the signout link in the side menu. useful if you use auth.proxy, defaults to false
;disable_signout_menu = false

# URL to redirect the user to after sign out
;signout_redirect_url = 

# Set to true to attempt login with OAuth automatically, skipping the login screen.
# This setting is ignored if multiple OAuth providers are configured.
;oauth_auto_login = false


[auth.jwt]
enabled = true
enable_login_token = true
header_name = X-Forwarded-Access-Token
username_claim = id
key_file = /etc/grafana/jwks.pem
cache_ttl = 60m
auto_sign_up = true
url_login = true

#################################### Anonymous Auth ######################
[auth.anonymous]
# enable anonymous access
;enabled = false

# specify organization name that should be used for unauthenticated users
;org_name = Main Org.

# specify role for unauthenticated users
;org_role = Viewer

#################################### Github Auth ##########################
[auth.github]
;enabled = false
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_id
;client_secret = some_secret
;scopes = user:email,read:org
;auth_url = https://github.com/login/oauth/authorize
;token_url = https://github.com/login/oauth/access_token
;api_url = https://api.github.com/user
;team_ids =
;allowed_organizations =

#################################### Google Auth ##########################
[auth.google]
;enabled = false
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_client_id
;client_secret = some_client_secret
;scopes = https://www.googleapis.com/auth/userinfo.profile https://www.googleapis.com/auth/userinfo.email
;auth_url = https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/auth
;token_url = https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/token
;api_url = https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v1/userinfo
;allowed_domains =

#################################### Generic OAuth ##########################
[auth.generic_oauth]
;enabled = false
;name = OAuth
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_id
;client_secret = some_secret
;scopes = user:email,read:org
;auth_url = https://foo.bar/login/oauth/authorize
;token_url = https://foo.bar/login/oauth/access_token
;api_url = https://foo.bar/user
;team_ids =
;allowed_organizations =
;tls_skip_verify_insecure = false
;tls_client_cert =
;tls_client_key =
;tls_client_ca =

; Set to true to enable sending client_id and client_secret via POST body instead of Basic authentication HTTP header
; This might be required if the OAuth provider is not RFC6749 compliant, only supporting credentials passed via POST payload
;send_client_credentials_via_post = false

#################################### SAML Auth ###########################
[auth.saml] # Enterprise only
# Defaults to false. If true, the feature is enabled.
;enabled = false

# Base64-encoded public X.509 certificate. Used to sign requests to the IdP
;certificate =

# Path to the public X.509 certificate. Used to sign requests to the IdP
;certificate_path =

# Base64-encoded private key. Used to decrypt assertions from the IdP
;private_key =

;# Path to the private key. Used to decrypt assertions from the IdP
;private_key_path =

# Base64-encoded IdP SAML metadata XML. Used to verify and obtain binding locations from the IdP
;idp_metadata =

# Path to the SAML metadata XML. Used to verify and obtain binding locations from the IdP
;idp_metadata_path =

# URL to fetch SAML IdP metadata. Used to verify and obtain binding locations from the IdP
;idp_metadata_url =

# Duration, since the IdP issued a response and the SP is allowed to process it. Defaults to 90 seconds.
;max_issue_delay = 90s

# Duration, for how long the SP's metadata should be valid. Defaults to 48 hours.
;metadata_valid_duration = 48h

# Friendly name or name of the attribute within the SAML assertion to use as the user's name
;assertion_attribute_name = displayName

# Friendly name or name of the attribute within the SAML assertion to use as the user's login handle
;assertion_attribute_login = mail

# Friendly name or name of the attribute within the SAML assertion to use as the user's email
;assertion_attribute_email = mail

#################################### Grafana.com Auth ####################
[auth.grafana_com]
;enabled = false
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_id
;client_secret = some_secret
;scopes = user:email
;allowed_organizations =

#################################### Auth Proxy ##########################
[auth.proxy]
;enabled = false
;header_name = X-WEBAUTH-USER
;header_property = username
;auto_sign_up = true
;ldap_sync_ttl = 60
;whitelist = 192.168.1.1, 192.168.2.1
;headers = Email:X-User-Email, Name:X-User-Name

#################################### Basic Auth ##########################
[auth.basic]
;enabled = true

#################################### Auth LDAP ##########################
[auth.ldap]
;enabled = false
;config_file = /etc/grafana/ldap.toml
;allow_sign_up = true

# LDAP backround sync (Enterprise only)
# At 1 am every day
;sync_cron = "0 0 1 * * *"
;active_sync_enabled = true

#################################### SMTP / Emailing ##########################
[smtp]
enabled = true
host = tuesday.mxrouting.net
user = removed
# If the password contains # or ; you have to wrap it with trippel quotes. Ex """#password;"""
password = removed
;cert_file =
;key_file =
;skip_verify = false
from_address = removed
from_name = removed
# EHLO identity in SMTP dialog (defaults to instance_name)
;ehlo_identity = dashboard.example.com

[emails]
;welcome_email_on_sign_up = false

#################################### Logging ##########################
[log]
# Either "console", "file", "syslog". Default is console and  file
# Use space to separate multiple modes, e.g. "console file"
mode = file

# Either "debug", "info", "warn", "error", "critical", default is "info"
level = warn

# optional settings to set different levels for specific loggers. Ex filters = sqlstore:debug
;filters =

# For "console" mode only
[log.console]
;level =

# log line format, valid options are text, console and json
;format = console

# For "file" mode only
[log.file]
;level =

# log line format, valid options are text, console and json
;format = text

# This enables automated log rotate(switch of following options), default is true
;log_rotate = true

# Max line number of single file, default is 1000000
;max_lines = 1000000

# Max size shift of single file, default is 28 means 1 << 28, 256MB
;max_size_shift = 28

# Segment log daily, default is true
;daily_rotate = true

# Expired days of log file(delete after max days), default is 7
;max_days = 7

[log.syslog]
;level =

# log line format, valid options are text, console and json
;format = text

# Syslog network type and address. This can be udp, tcp, or unix. If left blank, the default unix endpoints will be used.
;network =
;address =

# Syslog facility. user, daemon and local0 through local7 are valid.
;facility =

# Syslog tag. By default, the process' argv[0] is used.
;tag =

#################################### Alerting ############################
[alerting]
# Disable alerting engine & UI features
;enabled = true
# Makes it possible to turn off alert rule execution but alerting UI is visible
;execute_alerts = true

# Default setting for new alert rules. Defaults to categorize error and timeouts as alerting. (alerting, keep_state)
;error_or_timeout = alerting

# Default setting for how Grafana handles nodata or null values in alerting. (alerting, no_data, keep_state, ok)
;nodata_or_nullvalues = no_data

# Alert notifications can include images, but rendering many images at the same time can overload the server
# This limit will protect the server from render overloading and make sure notifications are sent out quickly
;concurrent_render_limit = 5


# Default setting for alert calculation timeout. Default value is 30
;evaluation_timeout_seconds = 30

# Default setting for alert notification timeout. Default value is 30
;notification_timeout_seconds = 30

# Default setting for max attempts to sending alert notifications. Default value is 3
;max_attempts = 3

#################################### Explore #############################
[explore]
# Enable the Explore section
;enabled = false

#################################### Internal Grafana Metrics ##########################
# Metrics available at HTTP API Url /metrics
[metrics]
# Disable / Enable internal metrics
;enabled           = true

# Publish interval
;interval_seconds  = 10

# Send internal metrics to Graphite
[metrics.graphite]
# Enable by setting the address setting (ex localhost:2003)
;address =
;prefix = prod.grafana.%(instance_name)s.

#################################### Distributed tracing ############
[tracing.jaeger]
# Enable by setting the address sending traces to jaeger (ex localhost:6831)
;address = localhost:6831
# Tag that will always be included in when creating new spans. ex (tag1:value1,tag2:value2)
;always_included_tag = tag1:value1
# Type specifies the type of the sampler: const, probabilistic, rateLimiting, or remote
;sampler_type = const
# jaeger samplerconfig param
# for "const" sampler, 0 or 1 for always false/true respectively
# for "probabilistic" sampler, a probability between 0 and 1
# for "rateLimiting" sampler, the number of spans per second
# for "remote" sampler, param is the same as for "probabilistic"
# and indicates the initial sampling rate before the actual one
# is received from the mothership
;sampler_param = 1
# Whether or not to use Zipkin propagation (x-b3- HTTP headers).
;zipkin_propagation = false
# Setting this to true disables shared RPC spans.
# Not disabling is the most common setting when using Zipkin elsewhere in your infrastructure.
;disable_shared_zipkin_spans = false

#################################### Grafana.com integration  ##########################
# Url used to import dashboards directly from Grafana.com
[grafana_com]
;url = https://grafana.com

#################################### External image storage ##########################
[external_image_storage]
# Used for uploading images to public servers so they can be included in slack/email messages.
# you can choose between (s3, webdav, gcs, azure_blob, local)
;provider =

[external_image_storage.s3]
;bucket =
;region =
;path =
;access_key =
;secret_key =

[external_image_storage.webdav]
;url =
;public_url =
;username =
;password =

[external_image_storage.gcs]
;key_file =
;bucket =
;path =

[external_image_storage.azure_blob]
;account_name =
;account_key =
;container_name =

[external_image_storage.local]
# does not require any configuration

[rendering]
# Options to configure external image rendering server like https://github.com/grafana/grafana-image-renderer
;server_url =
;callback_url =

[enterprise]
# Path to a valid Grafana Enterprise license.jwt file
;license_path =

[panels]
# If set to true Grafana will allow script tags in text panels. Not recommended as it enable XSS vulnerabilities.
;disable_sanitize_html = false

[plugins]
;enable_alpha = false
;app_tls_skip_verify_insecure = false
allow_loading_unsigned_plugins = pr0ps-trackmap-panel

Hi @fencer019,

Thanks for providing the info. As I haven’t used JWT so have not much familiarity with it.

Can you please provide if you are following any specific documentation to configure it?

Also, are you using anything else besides JWT e.g. any other authentication in parallel with JWT?

Asking because the more info you can share here, the better the chances that someone from the community might know the issue.

Thanks

the JWT token is generated by our existing nodejs system (developed in-house)

Hi @fencer019 ,

Pardon me for replying late as I was myself learning a bit JWT and hopefully can try to help you a bit further.

So this is my configuration file for JWT which I had followed like you from the official link:

[auth.jwt]

enabled = true
header_name = X-JWT-Assertion
email_claim = email
username_claim = uname
;jwk_set_url = https://foo.bar/.well-known/jwks.json
;jwk_set_file = /path/to/jwks.json
;cache_ttl = 60m
;expected_claims = {"aud": ["foo", "bar"]}
key_file = /etc/grafana/jwt-public-key.pem
auto_sign_up = true

Now, what is different is here that I have put my public key inside the /etc/grafana/jwt-public-key.pem

And I got that public key signature from https://jwt.io/ (using ES256 Hashing Algorithm)

Then, I adjusted some values in the payload e.g. uname and email

Finally did a curl to it e.g.

curl -H "X-JWT-Assertion: ENCODED-TOKEN-HASH" "http://localhost:3000/api/user"

gave me output e.g.

{"id":3,"email":"john@example.com","name":"","login":"john","theme":"","orgId":1,"isGrafanaAdmin":false,"isDisabled":false,"isExternal":true,"authLabels":["OAuth"],"updatedAt":"2022-09-

I hope this might give you some more insights to test if your node.js tokens are valid or not.

Also, in my googling I found several articles that if there is like a proxy server or running behind google or other services, then need some additional changes in the configuration.

I hope this helps.