What is the name of the method for updating the entire dashboard data? I mean updating graphics. Is there such a thing?
If you want to update the entire dashboard, then send a refresh event. Each panel listens out for the refresh event and refreshes its data on receiving.
Here is an example of broadcasting the refresh event: https://github.com/grafana/grafana/blob/master/public/app/features/dashboard/ad_hoc_filters.ts#L145
And here is an example of receiving the refresh event: https://github.com/grafana/grafana/blob/f1276774a00017f4f5210f1d7584fbe8362890ab/public/app/plugins/panel/dashlist/module.ts#L34